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Korean J Parasitol > Volume 30(2):1992 > Article

Original Article
Korean J Parasitol. 1992 Jun;30(2):113-123. English.
Published online Mar 20, 1994.  http://dx.doi.org/10.3347/kjp.1992.30.2.113
Copyright © 1992 by The Korean Society for Parasitology
The protective effects of monoclonal antibodies in mice from Naegleria fowleri infection
E Y Soh,H J Shin,* and K Im*
Department of General Surgery, College of Medicine, Aju University, Suwon 441-749, Korea.
*Department of Parasitology, College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-752, Korea.

Protective effects of monoclonal antibodies against N. fowleri were comparatively studied. BALB/c mice were treated with two types of monoclonal antibodies, Nf 2 and Nf 154, before and after the infection with N. fowleri. The mortality and mean survival times were then compared. Also, direct effect of the monoclonal antibodies on the N. fowleri trophozoites in vitro were observed. in vitro protective effects of the monoclonal antibodies were also studied in cells infected with N. fowleri. The observed results are summarized as follows:

1. Among mice pretreated twice before the infection with monoclonal antibody Nf 2(McAb Nf 2), only 15.8% were killed, and the mean survival time was 17.7 days. This was not much different from the mice pretreated once, as the mortality and mean survival time were 16.7% and 17 days. Those effects were compatible with monoclonal antibody Nf 154(McAb Nf 154). The above findings contrast with the mortality and mean survival time of the control mice, which were 22.7% and 14.6 days respectively.

2. Mice which received twice the McAb Nf 2 following N. fowleri infection incurred a 19.4% mortality rate with 13.6 days survival time; 17.9% and 15.8 days with on time administration, in contrast to the 25% and 14.6 days in the control group.

3. Marked agglutination effect of McAb Nf 2 or McAb Nf 154 were observed on N. fowleri trophozoites.

4. When N. fowleri trophozoites were treated with McAb Nf 2 or McAb Nf 154 combined with comments, the proliferation rate was more significantly suppressed than in that the control.

5. N. fowleri trophozoites treated with McAb Nf 2 or McAb Nf 154 showed an increased number of swollen mitochondria, disfigured cisternae, lipid droplets, and osmiophilic granules in the cytoplasm.

6. A remarkable protective effect of monoclonal antibodies was noticed in CHO cells infected with N. fowleri. More than 90.6% of the infected CHO cells survived, contrasted with 27% of untreated cells.

The overall results in this study suggest that N. fowleri treated with monoclonal antibodies against N. fowleri reduce the mortality and prolong the survival time of the mice when the antibodies are administered before the infection. The protective effect of the monoclonal antibodies is surmised being caused by agglutination of the trophozoites.


Fig. 1
Survival rate of the mice injected intravenously with the monoclonal antibody Nf 2 before inoculation of N. fowleri

Fig. 2
Survival rate of the mice injected intravenously with the monoclonal antibody Nf 154 before inoculation of N. fowleri

Fig. 3
Survival rate of the mice injected intravenously with the monoclonal antibody Nf 2 post inoculation of N. fowleri

Fig. 4
Agglutination of Nf 2 post inoculation of N. fowleri trophozoites treated with monoclonal antibodies.

A: control, B: monoclonal antibody Nf 2, C: monoclonal antibody Nf 154.

Fig. 5
Effect of monoclonal antibodies on the proliferation of N. fowleri trophozoites.

Figs. 6-7
Fig. 6. Transmission electron micrograph of a normal trophozoite of N. fowleri. Well developed nucleus(N) with nucleolus, endoplasmic reticulum(ER) and rough endoplasmic reticulum(RER), Golgi-complex(Gl), mitochondria(Mi), food vacuole(Fv), phagosomes (Ps) and peroxisomes(P) are seen(10,000×).

Fig. 7. 24 hours post culture of a N. fowleri trophozoite with monoclonal antibody Nf 2. Mitochondria are slightly swollen. Lipid droplets(Ld) are observed (35,000×).

Figs. 8-9
Fig. 8. 48 hours post culture of a N. fowleri trophozoite with monoclonal antibody Nf 2. Swelling mitochondria and numerous osmiophilic granules(OG) are observed (20,000×).

Fig. 9. 72 hours post culture of a N. fowleri trophozoite with monoclonal antibody Nf 2. Lipid droplets and very swollen mitochondria are seen(15,000×).


Table 1
Mortality of the mice injected intravenously with the monoclonal antibody Nf 2 before inoculation of N. fowleri

Table 2
Mortalitynof the mice infected intravenously with the monoclonal antibody Nf 154 before inoculation of N. fowleri

Table 3
Mortalityof the mice injected intravenously with the monoclonal antibody Nf 2 post inoculation of N. fowleri

Table 4
Effects of monoclonal antibodies on the cytotoxicity against Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells(CHO cells) by N. fowleri

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