| Home | E-Submission | Sitemap | Contact us |  
Korean J Parasitol > Volume 32(3):1994 > Article

Original Article
Korean J Parasitol. 1994 Sep;32(3):185-193. English.
Published online Sep 20, 1994.  http://dx.doi.org/10.3347/kjp.1994.32.3.185
Copyright © 1994 by The Korean Society for Parasitology
Effects of cytokines in the activation of peritoneal macrophages from mice infected with Toxoplasma gondii
Y H Lee,* and D W Shin
Department of Parasitology, College of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Taejon 301-131, Korea.
Received July 08, 1994; Accepted July 22, 1994.


The present study was undertaken to assess the role of cytokines in the activation of peritoneal macrophages from Toxoplasma-infected mice. Peritoneal macrophages from Toxoplasma-infected mice (10 cysts of Beverley strain/mouse) were harvested 8 weeks after infection, and incubated with the mitogen-induced lymphokine, recombinant mouse interferon-γ (IFN-γ), recombinant mouse tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) alone or in combination with IFN-γ (IFN-γ/TNF-α) for 24 hr at 37℃, 5% CO2. Macrophage activation was measured by the amount of H2O2 and NO2- production, and anti-Toxoplasma activities of macrophages. IFN-γ or IFN-γ/TNF-α-treated macrophages from Toxoplasma-infected mice revealed significantly higher H2O2 production than resident macrophages from Toxoplasma-infected mice. The production of NO2- by TNF-α-, IFN-γ- or IFN-γ/TNF-α-treated macrophages from Toxoplasma-infected mice were significantly higher than that by resident macrophages, whereas lymphokine-treated group produced similar amount as that produced by resident macrophages. Anti-Toxoplasma activities of cytokine-treated macrophages from Toxoplasma-infected mice were significantly higher than those of resident macrophages. IFN-γ-treated macrophages were significantly increased production of H2O2 and NO2-, and anti-Toxoplasma activities of macrophages between normal and Toxoplasma-infected mice, whereas the other cytokine-treated groups were not significant differences between them. These data suggested that IFN-γ was the only one of cytokines capable of significantly activating the peritoneal macrophages from Toxoplasma-infected mice.


Fig. 1
Production of hydrogen peroxide by cytokine-treated macrophages from normal and Toxoplasma-infected mice. The peritoneal macrophages were incubated 24 hours after treatment of cytokine. All results are mean ± standard error of 3 experiments. *Indicates values significantly different (P<0.05) from those for resident macrophages.

Fig. 2
Production of nitrite by cytokine-treated macrophages from normal and Toxoplasma-infected mice.

Fig. 3
Anti-Toxoplasma activities of cytokine-treated macrophages from normal and Toxoplasma-infected mice.


Table 1
Correlation coefficient form the production of hydrogen peroxide, nitrite, and anti-Toxoplasma activities of macrophages from normal and Toxoplasma-infected mice

1. Adams DO, Hamilton TA. The cell biology of macrophage activation. Annu Rev Immunol 1984;2:283–318.
2. Adams LB, Hibbs JB Jr, Taintor RR, Krahenbuhl JL. Microbiostatic effect of murine-activated macrophages for Toxoplasma gondii. Role for synthesis of inorganic nitrogen oxides from L-arginine. J Immunol 1990;144(7):2725–2729.
3. Centers for Disease Control (CDC). Update: acquired immunodeficiency syndrome--United States. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 1986;35(2):17–21.
4. Chao CC, Gekker G, Hu S, Peterson PK. Human microglial cell defense against Toxoplasma gondii. The role of cytokines. J Immunol 1994;152(3):1246–1252.
5. Ding AH, Nathan CF, Stuehr DJ. Release of reactive nitrogen intermediates and reactive oxygen intermediates from mouse peritoneal macrophages. Comparison of activating cytokines and evidence for independent production. J Immunol 1988;141(7):2407–2412.
6. Green SJ, Mellouk S, Hoffman SL, Meltzer MS, Nacy CA. Cellular mechanisms of nonspecific immunity to intracellular infection: cytokine-induced synthesis of toxic nitrogen oxides from L-arginine by macrophages and hepatocytes. Immunol Lett 1990;25(1-3):15–19.
7. Hibbs JB Jr, Vavrin Z, Taintor RR. L-arginine is required for expression of the activated macrophage effector mechanism causing selective metabolic inhibition in target cells. J Immunol 1987;138(2):550–565.
8. Langermans JA, Van der, Nibbering PH, Hiemstra PS, Fransen L, Van Furth R. IFN-gamma-induced L-arginine-dependent toxoplasmastatic activity in murine peritoneal macrophages is mediated by endogenous tumor necrosis factor-alpha. J Immunol 1992;148(2):568–574.
9. Liew FY. Role of cytokines in killing of intracellular pathogens. Immunol Lett 1991;30(2):193–197.
10. Makioka A, Kobayashi A. Macrophage activation by Tetrahymena pyriformis. II. Active protein fractions from Tetrahymena. J Protozool 1986;33(1):21–26.
11. McCabe R, Remington JS. Toxoplasmosis: the time has come. N Engl J Med 1988;318(5):313–315.
12. Murray HW, Cohn ZA. Macrophage oxygen-dependent antimicrobial activity. III. Enhanced oxidative metabolism as an expression of macrophage activation. J Exp Med 1980;152(6):1596–1609.
13. Nathan CF. Mechanisms of macrophage antimicrobial activity. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1983;77(5):620–630.
14. Nibbering PH, Langermans JA, van de Gevel JS, van der Hulst MB, van Furth R. Nitrite production by activated murine macrophages correlates with their toxoplasmastatic activity, Ia antigen expression, and production of H2O2. Immunobiology 1991;184(1):93–105.
15. Peetermans WE, Langermans JA, van der Hulst ME, van Embden JD, van Furth R. Murine peritoneal macrophages activated by the mycobacterial 65-kilodalton heat shock protein express enhanced microbicidal activity in vitro. Infect Immun 1993;61(3):868–875.
16. Saito A, et al. Zbl Bakt Hyg 1985;49:760.
17. Sibley LD, Krahenbuhl JL, Weidner E. Lymphokine activation of J774G8 cells and mouse peritoneal macrophages challenged with Toxoplasma gondii. Infect Immun 1985;49(3):760–764.
18. Sibley LD, Adams LB, Fukutomi Y, Krahenbuhl JL. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha triggers antitoxoplasmal activity of IFN-gamma primed macrophages. J Immunol 1991;147(7):2340–2345.
19. Stuehr DJ, Marletta MA. Induction of nitrite/nitrate synthesis in murine macrophages by BCG infection, lymphokines, or interferon-gamma. J Immunol 1987;139(2):518–525.
20. Suzuki Y, Orellana MA, Schreiber RD, Remington JS. Interferon-gamma: the major mediator of resistance against Toxoplasma gondii. Science 1988;240(4851):516–518.
21. Vincendeau P, Daulouede S. Macrophage cytostatic effect on Trypanosoma musculi involves an L-arginine-dependent mechanism. J Immunol 1991;146(12):4338–4343.
Editorial Office
c/o Department of Medical Environmental Biology
Chung-AngUniversity College of Medicine, Dongjak-gu, Seoul 06974, Korea
Tel: +82-2-820-5683   Fax: +82-2-826-1123   E-mail: kjp.editor@gmail.com
About |  Browse Articles |  Current Issue |  For Authors and Reviewers
Copyright © 2021 by The Korean Society for Parasitology and Tropical Medicine.     Developed in M2PI