| Home | E-Submission | Sitemap | Contact us |  
Korean J Parasitol > Volume 32(3):1994 > Article

Original Article
Korean J Parasitol. 1994 Sep;32(3):157-161. English.
Published online Sep 20, 1994.  http://dx.doi.org/10.3347/kjp.1994.32.3.157
Copyright © 1994 by The Korean Society for Parasitology
The first discovery of an endemic focus of Heterophyes nocens (Heterophyidae) infection in Korea
J Y Chai,*H K Nam,J Kook and S H Lee
Department of Parasitology and Institute of Endemic Diseases, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799, Korea.
Received July 05, 1994; Accepted July 20, 1994.


A highly endemic focus of human infection with Heterophyes nocens (Heterophyidae) was discovered from a small coastal village of Shinan-gun, Chollanam-do, for the first time in Korea. Fecal examinations by cellophane thick smear and formalin-ether sedimentation techniques revealed 42.9% heterophyid egg positive rate out of 98 inhabitants examined. It was difficult to confirm the species of heterophyids only by eggs. In order to collect the adult flukes, the egg positive cases were treated with 10 mg/kg single dose of praziquantel and purged with magnesium sulfate, and the adult worms were collected from the diarrheic stools. From each of 18 cooperative patients 1 to 1,124 (total 4,730) H. nocens worms were recovered, together with a few to large numbers of heterophyids (Pygidiopsis summa, Stictodora fuscatum) and/or gymnophallids (Gymnophalloides seoi). It is speculated that H. nocens might be widely distributed along the southwestern coastal areas where the brackish water fish such as the mullets or gobies are popularly eaten raw.


Figs. 1-4
Fig. 1.Heterophyes nocens adult flukes recovered from a patient (code No. 15 of Table 1). Formalin-fixed unstained specimens. Scale bar: 0.5 mm. Fig. 2. An adult specimen of H. nocens recovered from the same patient showing the oral sucker, ventral sucker (VS), genital sucker (GS) and testes (T). Ventral view, fresh preparation. Scale bar: 0.1mm. Fig. 3. Close-up view of the genital sucker (GS), which is armed with 52 chitinous rodlets on its gonotyl. Scale bar: 0.1 mm. Fig. 4. An egg of H. nocens found in the feces of a patient, showing its ovoid shape with maximum width near the equatorial portion, small operculum, clean shell surface, and containing a miracidium. Scale bar: 0.02mm.


Table 1
Number of H. nocens recovered from each infected case

2. Chai JY, et al. Seoul J Med 1985;26(2):197–200.
3. Chai JY, Lee SH. Intestinal trematodes of humans in Korea: Metagonimus, heterophyids and echinostomes. Korean J Parasitol 1990;28Suppl:103–122.
4. Chai JY, Seo BS, Lee SH. Studies on intestinal trematodes in Korea XI. Two cases of human infection by Heterophyes heterophyes nocens. Korean J Parasitol 1984;22(1):37–42.
5. Chai JY, Seo BS, Lee SH, Hong SJ, Sohn WM. Human infections by Heterophyes heterophyes and H. dispar imported from Saudi Arabia. Korean J Parasitol 1986;24(1):82–86.
6. Faust EC, et al. J Parasitol 1926;13:91–131.
7. Lee SH, Hwang SW, Chai JY, Seo BS. Comparative Morphology Of Eggs Of Heterophyids And Clonorchis Sinensis Causing Human Infections In Korea. Korean J Parasitol 1984;22(2):171–180.
9. Onji Y, et al. J Chiba Coll Med 1916;81&82:229–249.
10. Seo BS, et al. Seoul J Med 1980;21(1):30–38.
11. Seo BS, et al. Seoul J Med 1981;22(2):228–235.
12. Seo BS, et al. Seoul J Med 1981;22(2):236–242.
13. Sohn WM, et al. Inje Med J 1989;10(3):443–452.
15. Yokogawa M, et al. Jap J Parasitol 1965;14(6):557–585.
Editorial Office
c/o Department of Medical Environmental Biology
Chung-AngUniversity College of Medicine, Dongjak-gu, Seoul 06974, Korea
Tel: +82-2-820-5683   Fax: +82-2-826-1123   E-mail: kjp.editor@gmail.com
About |  Browse Articles |  Current Issue |  For Authors and Reviewers
Copyright © 2021 by The Korean Society for Parasitology and Tropical Medicine.     Developed in M2PI